Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United Kingdom, after skin cancer. It is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate cancer.
Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.
Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 years and do not die from the disease. Finding and treating prostate cancer before symptoms occur may not improve health or help you live longer. Talk to your doctor about your risk of prostate cancer and whether you need screening tests.
Prostate cancer does not normally cause symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.
This normally results in problems associated with urination. Symptoms can include:
Many men's prostates get larger as they get older due to a non-cancerous condition known as prostate enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Symptoms that the cancer may have spread include bone and back pain, a loss of appetite, pain in the testicles and unexplained weight loss.>
The following tests and procedures may be used:
A transrectal biopsy is used to diagnose prostate cancer. A transrectal biopsy is the removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide where samples of tissue are taken from. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
Treatment options also may depend on the following:
Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it.>
In stage I, cancer is found in the prostate only. The cancer is found by needle biopsy (done for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
In stage 2, cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB.
In stage IIA, cancer is found by needle biopsy (done for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; is found by needle biopsy (done for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or is found in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate.
In stage 2B, cancer is found in opposite sides of the prostate. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen in imaging tests. The PSA level is 20 or higher and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen in imaging tests. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score is 8 or higher.
In stage 3, cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate and may have spread to the seminal vesicles. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10.
In stage 4, the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10. Also, cancer has spread beyond the seminal vesicles to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall; or may have spread to the seminal vesicles or to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or has spread to distant parts of the body, which may include lymph nodes or bones. Prostate cancer often spreads to the bones.
About 1 man in 7 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime. Prostate cancer develops mainly in older men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men aged 65 or older, and it is rare before age 40. The average age at the time of diagnosis is about 66. There has been 46,690 new cases of prostate cancer in the UK with 11,287 deaths, 84% of people have survived prostate cancer in England and Wales.Prostate Cancer cases has risen by 155% since the 1970's
IS THERE A PREVENTION FOR PROSTATE CANCER?
The effects of body weight, physical activity, and diet on prostate cancer risk are not clear, but there are things you can do that might lower your risk, such as:
Tomatoes, watermelon, and other red foods owe their bright color to a powerful antioxidant called lycopene. Studies show that men who consume this fruit and tomato-based products have a lower risk of prostate cancer than those who don’t.
Other findings suggest that cooking tomatoes makes it easier for your body to absorb lycopene. The redder the tomato, the better because lycopene accumulates during ripening. That means that pale, store-bought tomatoes that are picked too early have less lycopene than vine-ripened tomatoes.
By eating fruits and vegetables throughout the day, you’ll be less likely to fill up on processed junk food.
When compared to a high-fat diet, eating a low-fat diet and taking fish oil supplements has been found to slow the growth of prostate cancer cells. It’s easier to treat cancer that hasn’t yet spread outside the prostate.
A nutrient called isoflavones has been linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer.
Isoflavones are found in:
Decades of studies suggest that indulging a serious coffee habit is linked to a decreased risk of fatal prostate cancer:
This describes a dose-response relationship between prostate cancer and coffee. That means the effect on prostate cancer goes up or down with the amount of coffee you drink. These effects may not extend to someone who only grabs an occasional cup.
However, high doses of caffeine can cause major health issues, such as irregular heartbeat and seizures. According to Mayo Clinic, the daily recommended amount of caffeine for most healthy adults is 400 milligrams — or about 1 1/2 cups.
How coffee is prepared can also be a factor. A study in Norway looked at coffee brewed with a filter, and boiled coffee, which doesn’t use such a filter. Men who drank boiled coffee seemed to have a lower risk of prostate cancer than men who drank coffee prepared another way or not at all.
The chemicals cafestol and kahweol have well-known cancer-fighting abilities. Researchers believe these chemicals are trapped when coffee runs through a paper filter. Boiled coffee may allow these cancer-fighting chemicals to stay in your daily brew.
Studies indicate a link between animal fats and an increased risk of prostate cancer. In addition to meat, animal fats are found in lard, butter, and cheese. Whenever possible, replace animal-based fats with plant-based fats.
This, instead of that:
Also, overcooking meat produces carcinogens, so be careful not to over-cook your meat.
Prostate cancer patients who smoke are more likely to have a recurrence of the disease.
Smokers are also more likely to have an aggressive form of prostate cancer.
It's not too late to quit.
When compared with current smokers, prostate cancer patients who quit smoking for more than
10 years had the same mortality risk as those who never smoked.
Some studies suggest that low folate levels in your blood increase your risk for cancer. Folate is found in a variety of foods, including green vegetables, beans, and orange juice. Increasing your intake of these foods may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
However, supplementing with folic acid, a man-made form of folate, may increase the risk of cancer.
Some studies have linked dairy products, or diets high in calcium, with an increased risk of prostate cancer, but this risk is considered minimal.
Too much fat, especially in the middle of your body, is linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.
Regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight. Benefits of exercise include increased muscle mass and better metabolism.
Exercise doesn't have to be boring. Vary your routine and invite your friends to participate.
You're more likely to workout if it's fun.
Ask your doctor about your risk for developing prostate cancer. Some points to discuss include:
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